modified on 21 lip 2010 at 09:10 ••• 23 650 views

API

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Summary

This document describes the operation of MikroTik RouterOS API for RouterOS3. The API (application programming interface) is a way to create your own versions of Winbox. This guide will help you make simplified, or translated control applications for RouterOS v3.

API uses port 8728 which is disabled by default. To enable API use followin command:

/ip service enable api


Protocol

  • Protocol stream is formatted as a sequence of words.
  • Each word is encoded as length, followed by that many bytes of content.
  • Words are grouped into sentences. End of sentence is terminated by zero length word.
  • Length is encoded as follows:
Value of length Number of bytes Encoding
0 <= len <= 0x7F 1 len, lowest byte
0x80 <= len <= 0x3FFF 2 len | 0x8000, two lower bytes
0x4000 <= len <= 0x1FFFFF 3 len | 0xC00000, three lower bytes
0x200000 <= len <= 0xFFFFFFF 4 len | 0xE0000000
len >= 0x10000000 5 0xF0 and len as four bytes
  • Although this scheme allows encoding of length up to 0x7FFFFFFFF, only four byte length is supported.
  • Bytes of len are sent most significant first (network order).
  • If first byte of word is >= 0xF8, then it is a reserved control byte. After receiving unknown control byte API client cannot proceed, because it cannot know how to interpret following bytes.
  • Currently control bytes are not used.

Short description of API sentences

  • Empty sentences are ignored.
  • Sentences are processed after receiving terminating zero length word.
  • There is a limit on number and size of sentences client can send before it has logged in.
  • Commands
    • First word is name of command. Examples:
 /login
 /ip/address/getall
 /user/active/listen
 /interface/vlan/remove
 /system/reboot
    • Names of commands closely follow console, with spaces replaced by '/'. There are commands that are specific to API, like getall or login.
    • Name of command should begin with '/'.
    • Next, command arguments can be specified. Examples:
=address=10.0.0.1
=name=iu=c3Eeg
=disable-running-check=yes
    • Command argument should begin with '=' followed by name of argument, followed by another '=', followed by value of argument.
    • There are API specific arguments, such as .id. Names of API specific arguments begin with dot.
    • Argument value can be empty and can contain '='.
    • Command sentence can have parameters that are specific to and processed by API protocol. These parameters should begin with '.' followed by name of parameter, followed by '=', followed by value of parameter.
    • Currently the only such parameter is 'tag'.
    • Order of arguments and API parameters is not important and cannot be relied on
    • Commands can have additional query parameters that restrict their scope. They are explained in detail in separate section. Exapmle:
/interface/print
?type=ether
?type=vlan
?#|!
    • Query words begin with '?'.
    • Order of query words is significant.
    • Currently only 'print' command handles query words.
    • First word of reply begins with '!'.
    • Each command generates at least one reply (if connection does not get terminated).
    • Last reply for every command is reply that has first word !done.
    • Errors and exceptional conditions begin with !trap.
    • Data replies begin with !re


Initial login

/login
 !done
=ret=ebddd18303a54111e2dea05a92ab46b4
/login
=name=admin
=response=001ea726ed53ae38520c8334f82d44c9f2
 !done

  • First, clients sends /login command.
  • Note that each command and response ends with an empty word.
  • Reply contains =ret=challenge argument.
  • Client sends second /login command, with =name=username and =response=response.
  • In case of error, reply contains =ret=error message.
  • In case of successful login client can start to issue commands.

Tags

  • It is possible to run several commands simultaneously, without waiting for previous one to complete. If API client is doing this and needs to differentiate command responses, it can use 'tag' API parameter in command sentences.
  • If you include 'tag' parameter with non-empty value in command sentence, then 'tag' parameter with exactly the same value will be included in all responses generated by this command.
  • If you do not include 'tag' parameter or it's value is empty, then all responses for this command will not have 'tag' parameter.

Command description

  • /cancel
    • optional argument: =tag=tag of command to cancel, without it cancels all running commands
    • does not cancel itself
    • all canceled commands are interruped and in the usual case generate '!trap' and '!done' responses
    • please note that /cancel is separate command and can have it's own unique '.tag' parameter, that is not related to '=tag' argument of this command
  • listen
    • listen command is avaliable where console print command is available, but it does not have expected effect everywhere (i.e. may not work)
    • !re sentences are generated as something changes in particular item list
    • when item is deleted or dissapears in any other way, the '!re' sentence includes value '=.dead=yes'
    • This command does not terminate. To terminate it use /cancel command.
  • getall
    • getall command is available where console print command is available. Since version 3.21 getall is an alias for print.
    • replies contain =.id=Item internal number property.
  • print
    • API print command differs from the console counterpart in the following ways:
      • arguments that modify list of returned properties (detail, breif, ...) have no effect in the API.
      • where argument is not supported. Items can be filtered using query words (see below).
      • .proplist argument is a comma separated list of property names that should be included for the returned items.
        • returned items may have additional properties.
        • order of returned properties is not defined.
        • if list contains duplicate entries, handling of such entries is not defined.
        • if propery is present in .proplist, but absent from the item, then that item does not have this property value (?name will evaluate to false for that item).
        • if .proplist is absent, all possible properties are included, even those that have slow access time (such as file contents and perfomance counters). Thus use of .proplist is encouraged. Omission of .proplist may have high perfomance penalty.

Queries

print command accepts query words that limit set of returned items. This feature appeared in the 3.21 version.

  • Query words begin with '?'.
  • Order of query words is significant. Query is evaluated starting from the first word.
  • Query is evaluated for each item in the list. If query succeeds, item is processed, if query fails, item is ignored.
  • Query is evaluated using a stack of boolean values. Initially stack contains infinite amount of 'true' values. At the end of evaluation, if stack contains at least one 'false' value, query fails.
  • Query words operate according to the following rules:
?name pushes 'true' if item has value of property name, 'false' if it does not.
?-name pushes 'true' if item does not have value of property name, 'false' otherwise.
?name=x
?=name=x
pushes 'true' if property name has value equal to x, 'false' otherwise.
?<name=x pushes 'true' if property name has value less than x, 'false' otherwise.
?>name=x pushes 'true' if property name has value greater than x, 'false' otherwise.
?#operations applies operations to the values in the stack.
  • operation string is evaluated left to right.
  • sequence of decimal digits followed by any other character or end of word is interpreted as a stack index. top value has index 0.
  • index that is followed by a character pushes copy of value at that index.
  • index that is followed by the end of word replaces all values with the value at that index.
  • ! character replaces top value with the opposite.
  • & pops two values and pushes result of logical 'and' operation.
  • | pops two values and pushes result of logical 'or' operation.
  • . after an index does nothing.
  • . after another character pushes copy of top value.

Examples:

  • Get all ethernet and VLAN interfaces:
/interface/print
?type=ether
?type=vlan
?#|
  • Get all routes that have non-empty comment:
/ip/route/print
?>comment=

OID

print command can return OID values for properties that are available in SNMP. This feature appeared in 3.23 version.

In console, OID values can be seen by running 'print oid' command. In API, these properties have name that ends with ".oid", and can be retrieved by adding their name to the value of '.proplist'. An example:

/system/resource/print
=.proplist=uptime,cpu-load,uptime.oid,cpu-load.oid
 !re
=uptime=01:22:53
=cpu-load=0
=uptime.oid=.1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0
=cpu-load.oid=.1.3.6.1.2.1.25.3.3.1.2.1
 !done

Command examples

/system/package/getall

/system/package/getall
 !re
=.id=*5802
=disabled=no
=name=routeros-x86
=version=3.0beta2
=build-time=oct/18/2006 16:24:41
=scheduled=
 !re
=.id=*5805
=disabled=no
=name=system
=version=3.0beta2
=build-time=oct/18/2006 17:20:46
=scheduled=
... more !re sentences ...
 !re
=.id=*5902
=disabled=no
=name=advanced-tools
=version=3.0beta2
=build-time=oct/18/2006 17:20:49
=scheduled=
 !done

/user/active/listen

/user/active/listen
 !re
=.id=*68
=radius=no
=when=oct/24/2006 08:40:42
=name=admin
=address=0.0.0.0
=via=console
 !re
=.id=*68
=.dead=yes
... more !re sentences ...

/cancel, simultaneous commands

/login
 !done
=ret=856780b7411eefd3abadee2058c149a3
/login
=name=admin
=response=005062f7a5ef124d34675bf3e81f56c556
 !done
-- first start listening for interface changes (tag is 2)
/interface/listen
.tag=2
-- disable interface (tag is 3)
/interface/set
=disabled=yes
=.id=ether1
.tag=3
-- this is done for disable command (tag 3)
 !done
.tag=3
-- enable interface (tag is 4)
/interface/set
=disabled=no
=.id=ether1
.tag=4
-- this update is generated by change made by first set command (tag 3)
 !re
=.id=*1
=disabled=yes
=dynamic=no
=running=no
=name=ether1
=mtu=1500
=type=ether
.tag=2
-- this is done for enable command (tag 4)
 !done
.tag=4
-- get interface list (tag is 5)
/interface/getall
.tag=5
-- this update is generated by change made by second set command (tag 4)
 !re
=.id=*1
=disabled=no
=dynamic=no
=running=yes
=name=ether1
=mtu=1500
=type=ether
.tag=2
-- these are replies to getall command (tag 5)
 !re
=.id=*1
=disabled=no
=dynamic=no
=running=yes
=name=ether1
=mtu=1500
=type=ether
.tag=5
 !re
=.id=*2
=disabled=no
=dynamic=no
=running=yes
=name=ether2
=mtu=1500
=type=ether
.tag=5
-- here interface getall ends (tag 5)
 !done
.tag=5
-- stop listening - request to cancel command with tag 2, cancel itself uses tag 7
/cancel
=tag=2
.tag=7
-- listen command is interrupted (tag 2)
 !trap
=category=2
=message=interrupted
.tag=2
-- cancel command is finished (tag 7)
 !done
.tag=7
-- listen command is finished (tag 2)
 !done
.tag=2

Example client

  • this is simple API client in Python
  • usage: api.py ip-address username password
  • after that type words from keyboard, terminating them with newline
  • Since empty word terminates sentence, you should press enter twice after last word before sentence will be sent to router.

#!/usr/bin/python

import sys, posix, time, md5, binascii, socket, select

class ApiRos:
    "Routeros api"
    def __init__(self, sk):
        self.sk = sk
        self.currenttag = 0
        
    def login(self, username, pwd):
        for repl, attrs in self.talk(["/login"]):
            chal = binascii.unhexlify(attrs['=ret'])
        md = md5.new()
        md.update('\x00')
        md.update(pwd)
        md.update(chal)
        self.talk(["/login", "=name=" + username,
                   "=response=00" + binascii.hexlify(md.digest())])

    def talk(self, words):
        if self.writeSentence(words) == 0: return
        r = []
        while 1:
            i = self.readSentence();
            if len(i) == 0: continue
            reply = i[0]
            attrs = {}
            for w in i[1:]:
                j = w.find('=', 1)
                if (j == -1):
                    attrs[w] = ''
                else:
                    attrs[w[:j]] = w[j+1:]
            r.append((reply, attrs))
            if reply == '!done': return r

    def writeSentence(self, words):
        ret = 0
        for w in words:
            self.writeWord(w)
            ret += 1
        self.writeWord('')
        return ret

    def readSentence(self):
        r = []
        while 1:
            w = self.readWord()
            if w == '': return r
            r.append(w)
            
    def writeWord(self, w):
        print "<<< " + w
        self.writeLen(len(w))
        self.writeStr(w)

    def readWord(self):
        ret = self.readStr(self.readLen())
        print ">>> " + ret
        return ret

    def writeLen(self, l):
        if l < 0x80:
            self.writeStr(chr(l))
        elif l < 0x4000:
            l |= 0x8000
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 8) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr(l & 0xFF))
        elif l < 0x200000:
            l |= 0xC00000
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 16) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 8) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr(l & 0xFF))
        elif l < 0x10000000:        
            l |= 0xE0000000         
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 24) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 16) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 8) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr(l & 0xFF))
        else:                       
            self.writeStr(chr(0xF0))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 24) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 16) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr((l >> 8) & 0xFF))
            self.writeStr(chr(l & 0xFF))

    def readLen(self):              
        c = ord(self.readStr(1))    
        if (c & 0x80) == 0x00:      
            pass                    
        elif (c & 0xC0) == 0x80:    
            c &= ~0xC0              
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
        elif (c & 0xE0) == 0xC0:    
            c &= ~0xE0              
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
        elif (c & 0xF0) == 0xE0:    
            c &= ~0xF0              
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
        elif (c & 0xF8) == 0xF0:    
            c = ord(self.readStr(1))     
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
            c <<= 8                 
            c += ord(self.readStr(1))    
        return c                    

    def writeStr(self, str):        
        n = 0;                      
        while n < len(str):         
            r = self.sk.send(str[n:])
            if r == 0: raise RuntimeError, "connection closed by remote end"
            n += r                  

    def readStr(self, length):      
        ret = ''                    
        while len(ret) < length:    
            s = self.sk.recv(length - len(ret))
            if s == '': raise RuntimeError, "connection closed by remote end"
            ret += s
        return ret

def main():
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    s.connect((sys.argv[1], 8728))  
    apiros = ApiRos(s);             
    apiros.login(sys.argv[2], sys.argv[3]);

    inputsentence = []

    while 1:
        r = select.select([s, sys.stdin], [], [], None)
        if s in r[0]:
            # something to read in socket, read sentence
            x = apiros.readSentence()

        if sys.stdin in r[0]:
            # read line from input and strip off newline
            l = sys.stdin.readline()
            l = l[:-1]

            # if empty line, send sentence and start with new
            # otherwise append to input sentence
            if l == '':
                apiros.writeSentence(inputsentence)
                inputsentence = []
            else:
                inputsentence.append(l)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()


Example run:

debian@localhost:~/api-test$ ./api.py 10.0.0.1 admin ''
<<< /login
<<< 
>>> !done
>>> =ret=93b438ec9b80057c06dd9fe67d56aa9a
>>> 
<<< /login
<<< =name=admin
<<< =response=00e134102a9d330dd7b1849fedfea3cb57
<<< 
>>> !done
>>> 
/user/getall

<<< /user/getall
<<< 
>>> !re
>>> =.id=*1
>>> =disabled=no
>>> =name=admin
>>> =group=full
>>> =address=0.0.0.0/0
>>> =netmask=0.0.0.0
>>> 
>>> !done
>>> 

See also

API examples in the Wiki

API examples on the MikroTik Forum